4 types of bullet wounds

These distances can be doubled for rifles (Knight 1996). + Newsletter+ New Content Alerts+ Deals and Sales. A bullet kills via two methods, and only two methods: The real trick is in how we get to one of these two outcomes. This is attributed to contact of the exterior of the projectile with the skin. '3D surface and body documentation in forensic medicine: 3D/CAD photogrammetry merged with 3D radiological scanning', Virtopsy gunshot wound reconstruction to skull, Ragsdale gunshot wounds study - with movie clip.

The perceived superiority of the 7mm Mauser in the Spanish-American War had a lot more to do with the battlefield tactics and terrain.

Permanent Wound Channel. on the battlefield than using traditional full-sized battle rifles. has a nice writeup on Kocher’s experiments.

If contact is made with unclothed skin, searing or burning of the wound edges occurs.

Gain insights from pros, new content notifications, vendor discount alerts, and more! The rest of the world did not follow until after the German adoption of the S Patrone in 1903.

… None of the full-jacketed or metal-patch bullets (all of which were less than cal.

Matt is the primary author and owner of The Everyday Marksman. The Americans and the British were the only two nations to vote against the measure.

Sci Rep. 2019 Sep 24;9(1):13767. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-50272-3. For gunshot wounds to the chest, seal the wound with some type of plastic to keep air from being sucked into the wound. ‘The Pathology of Trauma’, 3rd Ed, Arnold Publishers.

The “devastating” wounds documented by early AR-15s?

Their conclusions were pretty straight forward (emphasis mine): The board was of the opinion that a bullet, which will have the shock effect and stopping effect at short ranges necessary for a military pistol or revolver, should have a caliber not less than .45. As a hunter I can very much support your points in the article. Target shooters usually care less about terminal ballistics than hunters or defensive shooters. Centre fire weapons produce more destruction than rim fire weapons, in general, and where the torso is the point of entry, there may be massive internal disruption at a distance from the wound track.

Shots were oriented upwards and downwards in both groups. In a 1987 paper titled, What’s Wrong With the Wound Ballistics Literature, and Why. This is just the start of a longer discussion about ballistics. There’s a higher probability of hitting areas with a lot of blood flow.

The requirements of such a bullet would need to have a sectional area like that of a 3-inch solid shot the recoil from which when used in hand weapons would be prohibitive. Thank you for the correction. Target shooters usually care less about terminal ballistics than hunters or defensive shooters. So let’s talk history. It can therefore be concluded that an analysis of wound patterns can give clues to the likely manner of death, but atypical patterns occur relatively frequently, and a full scene examination and multidisciplinary investigation is therefore essential in all firearm deaths.

Another feature of entrance wounds, of short to intermediate distance is the presence of powder markings or ‘tattooing’. The pattern of tattooing again depends upon range of fire, and as range increases, the areas of skin tattooed increases up to the point where powder particles exiting the weapon do not have enough energy to reach and impact upon the skin surface (approximately 60 – 120 cm, depending upon the powder type). “Born in Switzerland in 1941” ← 1841?, FWIW: No one involved in the Spanish-American War was issuing cartridges using spitzer projectiles. They usually fully recover without permanent damage.

program, then you know that this theory ultimately prevailed and resulted in the US Military adopting the M16 rifle chambered in a lightweight 55gr projectile known as M193. Ah, you are correct. An important aspect of describing and documenting gunshot wounds is the ability to recognise not only whether the wound represents an entry or an exit wound, but also from what range the weapon was discharged. If you’ve read my series on the Small Caliber High-Velocity program, then you know that this theory ultimately prevailed and resulted in the US Military adopting the M16 rifle chambered in a lightweight 55gr projectile known as M193.

1989 Mar;1(1):97-103. In addition to the wound caused by the exiting bullet, secondary projectile damage may be caused by fragments of bone, particularly in headshots.
Imaging of gunshot wound victims may also show another surprise feature – bullet emboli, where a bullet, or fragment impacts an artery or great vessel and is carried into the bloodstream to lodge at another site distant from the wound track.

The exit wound in such circumstances may resemble a knife wound or a laceration caused by blunt trauma. BJR Case Rep. 2018 Nov 14;5(2):20180070. doi: 10.1259/bjrcr.20180070.

He worked as a field surgeon in Da Nang during Vietnam, and saw his fair share of bullet wounds. The skin moves away from the projectile in a cone-like shape, upon impact. The bullet entered his left thigh and traveled obliquely upward. Hardly. If this was true, he surmised, then soldier’s could carry.

The action of pressing firmly causes underlying tissues to be compressed and indented, and forms a seal around the weapon’s muzzle. Early reports of experimental AR-15s from Vietnam talked about “devastating” damage and wounds.

However, when a semi-jacketed high velocity rifle round fragments, it is seen on x-ray as a ‘snow storm’ of fragments.

(2003), ‘Gunshot trauma’, Chapter 12 in Payne-James J.J., Busuttil A., Smock W. ‘Forensic Medicine: Clinical and Pathological Aspects’, Greenwich Medical Media, DiMaio V.J.M. But others, such as the liver and kidneys, are more susceptible. Hard contact wounds often exhibit muzzle imprints surrounding the central hole. Rifles do both. It just has shape of donut and used in case of punctured wounds, where something foreign minor object has entered inside puncture wound; for expulsion of which this donut bandage is applied. If you hit a major blood vessel, like the aorta or femoral artery, then this blood loss occurs very quickly in as little as a single shot. They exhibit no abrasion collar, and they do not have any features of secondary muzzle product projectile impact, such as soot soiling, or powder tattooing (Besant-Matthews 2000; Knight 1996). If this material is nor gunpowder, however, the term 'pseudo-powder tattooing' is preferred. Contact wounds made by higher velocity rifles cause massive destruction of the head due to the explosive effect of the expanding gases leaving the muzzle.

Born in Switzerland in 1841, Theodor Kocher rose to the rank of Colonel in the Swiss Militia.

I linked to several within the article. If I remember correctly, Louis La Garde stated the first conflict… Read more ». The resultant shape of soot soiling etc can bethought of as a teardrop shaped pattern. Without getting into the physics of it, imagine what happens as you throw a rock into a pond. That means that a bullet insufficiently stabilized is prone to tumble. These give rise to so-called ‘powder tattooing’, where particles of powder impact the skin and cause punctate abrasions and bruising.

The contemporary Spanish-issue 7mm Mauser cartridge launched a roundnose 173-grain FMJ at ~2,300 fps. If you recall my article on rifle twist rates, I talked about the aerodynamic forces working on a projectile in flight.

The big takeaway from this experiment, according to a doctoral thesis by Nicholas Maiden for, in Australia, was that the most important element of ballistic wounding was the. While he is hard on the old ways of thinking, he demonstrated that the worst wounds come from the fragmentation of the bullet. If the angle is acute enough, there may be enough distance for there to be deposits of powder flakes or particles.

eCollection 2019 Jun.

Shattered bone fragments can have the same effect, perforating surrounding stretchy tissue until it ruptures rather than stretches.
The skin bulges and presses against the muzzle in a contact shot. At worst it is totally irrelevant, at best it is an inconsistent wounding method and should not be relied upon. When a rifle bullet impacts soft tissue, reducing its velocity and spin rate, the bullet becomes unstable and begins tumbling inside of the body. The soft-point “dum dum” type of bullet they came to favor came from that conflict, where they snipped the tips off of FMJ bullets to expose the soft lead core and improve deformation. It bulges outward and the temporary entrance hole contracts after the projectile passes through. Janak JC, Mazuchowski EL, Kotwal RS, Stockinger ZT, Howard JT, Butler FK, Sosnov JA, Gurney JM, Shackelford SA. We'd love to hear your thoughts, leave a comment, Go ahead and drop your answer in the comments now, just to get things started. You are correct, I don’t want to overstate the behavior of JHP handgun rounds. The big thing to take away is that everyone still believed that kinetic energy transfer was a primary terminal ballistics wounding mechanism for rifles. I’m also very glad you provided some real world examples of how terminal ballistics works for your hunting shots. Hi Shorty, thanks for coming by! When this happens, pieces of the jacket and lead core fly off in various directions. Careful examination of the wound edges, however (with a hand lens and good light source if necessary) may reveal inverted wound edges and a variable abrasion rim, revealing it’s true nature. In 1904, the US Army undertook a study in handgun ballistics. In addition to the mass and velocity of the bullet, its orientation and whether it fragments or deforms affect the nature of the wound. Ballistics reviews: mechanisms of bullet wound trauma.

During this time, noticed a disconnect between what was being said about rifle ballistics, and particularly the 5.56, and what he actually observed in the field. (we’ve found some animals with healed wound there) I think it works so that there you mechanically hit the spinal column which sends a real shockwave in… Read more », Thanks for a good article. The requirements of such a bullet would need to have a sectional area like that of a 3-inch solid shot the recoil from which when used in hand weapons would be prohibitive. If the bullet enters the body at a very acute angle, it may travel just under the skin surface before coming to rest – when this occurs there may be a series of interrupted surface bruises that follow the track. It is a combination of physical, chemical and cellular events that restore wounded tissue or replace it with collagen which may start immediately after injury or incision. A bullet, any bullet, wounds effectively in only one of two ways. The use of silencers on handguns reduces the area of soot soiling and powder tattooing, and cause difficulties in determining range of fire. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. When bullets fired from handguns enter the body and fragment (particularly after striking bone), they can be seen on x-rays as scattered radio opaque fragments.

Theory is one thing, but getting relatable examples is even better! But it all hinged on the kinetic energy transfer theory, which turns out to be incorrect.

They require special care depending on the type of wound. Sorry, I meant the big one.

Colonel Rubin saw that these FMJ bullets had higher velocity, accuracy, and came at a lower weight. Heat searing of the wound edges may also be seen, and hairs may be singed or ‘clubbed’, where their keratin melts at the tip and re-solidifies as a 'blob' (Knight 1996).

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