The most famous Korean ceramics from any period, though, are the pale green celadons produced in the Goryeo kingdom.
S. Wise Bauer, 《The History of the Renaissance World:From the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Conquest of Constantinople》, W.W Norton&Company, 2013.  Commerce flourished in Goryeo, with merchants coming from as far as the Middle East, and the capital in modern-day Kaesong, North Korea was a center of trade and industry, with merchants employing a system of double-entry bookkeeping since the 11th or 12th century.
Eventually the House of Yi gained more power than the monarch himself. It failed, but the power of the monarch was weakened; Goryeo underwent a civil war among the nobility.  From that point on, Goryeo became a semi-autonomous "son-in-law nation" of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty through royal intermarriage and blood ties.
These ceramics are of a hard porcellaneous body with porcelain stone as one of the key ingredients; however, it is not to be confused with porcelain. Goryeo fell to General Yi Seong-gye, a son of Yi Ja-chun, who put to death the last three Goryeo kings, usurped the throne and established in 1392 the Joseon dynasty. The Han were interested in natural resources such as salt and iron and they divided northern Korea into four commanderies directly administered by their central government.  During the military rule, Goryeo resisted invasions by the Mongol Empire for almost 30 years, until the ruling head of the Choe family was assassinated in 1258 by opponents in the court, after which authority was restored to the monarchy and peace was made with the Mongols; however, power struggles continued in the court and military rule did not end until 1270. It was during this period satirical poems were composed and one of them was the Sanghwajeom, the "Colored-eye people bakery", the song tells the tale of a Korean woman who goes to a Muslim bakery to buy some dumplings.  Khubilai, who became khan of the Mongols and emperor of China in 1260, did not impose direct rule over most of Goryeo.
 He then sent Ha Gong-jin and Go Yeong-gi to sue for peace, with a promise that he would pay homage in person to the Liao emperor, and the Khitans, who were sustaining attacks by the regrouped Korean army and disrupted supply lines, accepted and began their withdrawal.
Glazes were usually various shades of celadon, with browned glazes to almost black glazes being used for stoneware and storage. Goryeo resisted for about 30 years but finally sued for peace in 1259.  In 1388, Yi Seong-gye was sent to invade the Ming dynasty at Liaodong, but he turned his forces around and defeated Choe Yeong in a coup d'état; in 1392, he replaced Goryeo with the new state of Joseon, bringing an end to 474 years of Goryeo rule on the Korean Peninsula. Confucian principles were followed in the state administration and were an essential part of entrance exams to positions within that system.
 In 918, Gung Ye was deposed by his own generals, and Wang Geon was raised to the throne.
 Learning Chinese poetry as well as composing poetry in Chinese became an integral part of education for the aristocracy. Another important advocate of Seon/Gyo unity was Uicheon.  In response, several Goryeo rulers reformed and revitalized the national education system, producing prominent scholars such as Kim Busik. The Korean peninsula was inhabited from 10,000 BCE (or even earlier) by people who subsisted on hunting, fishing, and gathering. The highest peak is Pae'gyŏnsan (백연산). The chief stream is the Pukhan River. In 1014, a coup occurred but the effects of the rebellion didn't last long, only making generals discontent with the current supremacy of the civilian officers. The earliest known settlements date to c. 6,000 BCE.  The first Tripitaka Koreana, amounting to about 6,000 volumes, was completed in 1087.
 Later Goguryeo, also known as Taebong, was overthrown from within in 918 by Wang Geon, a prominent general of noble Goguryeo descent, who established Goryeo in its place. These have trees and stag-like branches which represent a link with shamanism.
Chinese culture was likely brought to Korea by refugees fleeing the 4th-century BCE conflicts of the Warring States period. After the death of Gongmin's wife Noguk in 1365, he fell into depression. High-fired grey stoneware was produced in great quantities from the Three Kingdoms period. Roofs of Korean buildings, as seen in the Hall of Eternal Life, are typically high-pitched to allow easy drainage of rainwater and strong enough to resist the weight of snow in winter. In 1388, King U (son of King Gongmin and a concubine) and general Choe Yeong planned a campaign to invade present-day Liaoning of China. Tomb-painting is best seen in the tombs of Goguryeo. , The Jurchens in the Yalu River region were tributaries of Goryeo since the reign of Wang Geon, who called upon them during the wars of the Later Three Kingdoms period, but the Jurchens switched allegiance between Liao and Goryeo multiple times, taking advantage of the tension between the two nations; posing a potential threat to Goryeo's border security, the Jurchens offered tribute to the Goryeo court, expecting lavish gifts in return.. Dwellings of this period are typically subterranean with a roof supported by poles and have a central hearth. , Initially, the new Seon schools were regarded by the established doctrinal schools as radical and dangerous upstarts.
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