the sun

F C G D A7 Sun, sun, sun, here it comes. [142] The Sun, and thus the Solar System, is found in what scientists call the galactic habitable zone. The Sun has been regarded by some cultures as a deity. It’s classified as a yellow dwarf star. Observations of sunspots were recorded during the Han Dynasty (206 BC–AD 220) by Chinese astronomers, who maintained records of these observations for centuries. From the reign of Elagabalus in the late Roman Empire the Sun's birthday was a holiday celebrated as Sol Invictus (literally "Unconquered Sun") soon after the winter solstice, which may have been an antecedent to Christmas. The symbol of light was a pagan device adopted by Christians, and perhaps the most important one that did not come from Jewish traditions. Cognates appear in other Germanic languages, including West Frisian sinne, Dutch zon, Low German Sünn, Standard German Sonne, Bavarian Sunna, Old Norse sunna and Gothic sunnō. In a frame of reference defined by the stars, the rotational period is approximately 25.6 days at the equator and 33.5 days at the poles.

[114] We take X(0) and Y(0) to be zero and Z(0) is estimated to be 17 parsecs. It is the dominant body of the system, constituting more than 99 percent of its entire mass. Without the Sun's intense energy, there would be no life on Earth. − A 50 kg adult human has a volume of about 0.05 m, Earth's atmosphere near sea level has a particle density of about 2, Iben, I Jnr (1965) "Stellar Evolution. Its main instrument will be a coronagraph for studying the dynamics of the solar corona.[197]. In the (X, Y) coordinates, the Sun describes an ellipse around the point, whose length in the Y direction is, The ratio of length to width of this ellipse, the same for all stars in our neighborhood, is The Solar System also has at least five dwarf planets, an asteroid belt, numerous comets, and a large number of icy bodies which lie beyond the orbit of Neptune. It is composed of four distinct parts: the chromosphere, the transition region, the corona and the heliosphere. [115] Earlier extended minima have been discovered through analysis of tree rings and appear to have coincided with lower-than-average global temperatures. [55], The Sun's original chemical composition was inherited from the interstellar medium out of which it formed. It gives us light so we can see. As a result, there is no fixed surface. The Mail, Telegraph and Sun are devoting increasing space to questioning PM’s approach It keeps our planet warm enough for living things to thrive. [69] This temperature gradient is less than the value of the adiabatic lapse rate and hence cannot drive convection, which explains why the transfer of energy through this zone is by radiation instead of thermal convection. There are lots of stars, but the Sun is the closest one to Earth. This motion is towards a point in the constellation Hercules, near the star Vega. In 1666, Isaac Newton observed the Sun's light using a prism, and showed that it is made up of light of many colors. Partial solar eclipses are hazardous to view because the eye's pupil is not adapted to the unusually high visual contrast: the pupil dilates according to the total amount of light in the field of view, not by the brightest object in the field. [54] All heavier elements, called metals in astronomy, account for less than 2% of the mass, with oxygen (roughly 1% of the Sun's mass), carbon (0.3%), neon (0.2%), and iron (0.2%) being the most abundant. The photosphere is tens to hundreds of kilometers thick, and is slightly less opaque than air on Earth. Rather, it forms a kind of nimbus around chromospheric features such as spicules and filaments, and is in constant, chaotic motion. The Sun formed about 4.6 billion years ago from the collapse of part of a giant molecular cloud that consisted mostly of hydrogen and helium and that probably gave birth to many other stars. 1 (. [87], The chromosphere, transition region, and corona are much hotter than the surface of the Sun. W One can think of the barycentre of the Solar System as being stationary (or as moving in a steady motion around the galaxy). Visit NASA Space Place for more kid-friendly facts. [217][218] Derivatives of this goddess in Indo-European languages include the Old Norse Sól, Sanskrit Surya, Gaulish Sulis, Lithuanian Saulė, and Slavic Solntse. [82] The reason is not well understood, but evidence suggests that Alfvén waves may have enough energy to heat the corona. [148] It takes the Solar System about 225–250 million years to complete one orbit through the Milky Way (a galactic year),[149] so it is thought to have completed 20–25 orbits during the lifetime of the Sun. 10 Need-to-Know Things About the Sun This then starts the red-giant-branch phase where the Sun will spend around a billion years and lose around a third of its mass. The large power output of the Sun is mainly due to the huge size and density of its core (compared to Earth and objects on Earth), with only a fairly small amount of power being generated per cubic metre. Game data exports will becoming later as the technical changes in addition to regular changes take some more time. [82] It is called the chromosphere from the Greek root chroma, meaning color, because the chromosphere is visible as a colored flash at the beginning and end of total solar eclipses.

[127][128] As a red giant, the Sun will grow so large that it will engulf Mercury, Venus, and probably Earth. It gives us light so we can see. The Sun 7 Rise of the Phoenix Each night, the light dies, and each morning she is born anew, embracing the land in her golden wings. It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. It is also the main cause of skin cancer.

[131] According to a 2008 model, Earth's orbit is shrinking due to tidal forces (and, eventually, drag from the lower chromosphere), so that it will be engulfed by the Sun near the tip of the red giant branch phase, 3.8 and 1 million years after Mercury and Venus have respectively had the same fate. Lots of smaller worlds orbit the Sun.

As a star, the Sun is a ball of gas (92.1 percent hydrogen and 7.8 percent helium) held together by its own gravity. [202] Long-duration viewing of the direct Sun with the naked eye can begin to cause UV-induced, sunburn-like lesions on the retina after about 100 seconds, particularly under conditions where the UV light from the Sun is intense and well focused;[203][204] conditions are worsened by young eyes or new lens implants (which admit more UV than aging natural eyes), Sun angles near the zenith, and observing locations at high altitude. [89], Above the chromosphere, in a thin (about 200 km) transition region, the temperature rises rapidly from around 20000 K in the upper chromosphere to coronal temperatures closer to 1000000 K.[90] The temperature increase is facilitated by the full ionization of helium in the transition region, which significantly reduces radiative cooling of the plasma. Astronomers report the discovery of 95 objects known as brown dwarfs, many within a few dozen light-years of our Sun. The solar magnetic field extends well beyond the Sun itself. This page was last edited on 12 October 2020, at 09:47. Both coronal-mass ejections and high-speed streams of solar wind carry plasma and interplanetary magnetic field outward into the Solar System. The Sun is located at the center of our solar system, and Earth orbits 93 million miles away from it. The connection and interactions between the Sun and Earth drive the seasons, ocean current… Despite its typical whiteness, most[note 1] people mentally picture the Sun as yellow; the reasons for this are the subject of debate. Because the upper part of the photosphere is cooler than the lower part, an image of the Sun appears brighter in the center than on the edge or limb of the solar disk, in a phenomenon known as limb darkening. [47] Solar ultraviolet radiation ionizes Earth's dayside upper atmosphere, creating the electrically conducting ionosphere.[48].

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